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CS - 14 Intelligent Systems
June 2003

Q 1. (a) For each of the following statements, tell whether it is true or false:

  1. Computers are better than human beings in the matter of non-numeric symbolic processing.
  2. Knowledge is food for intelligence.
  3. AI does not overlap with any of the disciplines: Linguistics, psychology, or philosophy.

(b) Construct a truth-table for the following logical expression:
(C Ú ~D) à (D à C)

(c) Represent the following English sentence as conceptual graph:
A cow has four legs and eats grass.

(d) Write a LISP program to convert Centigrade temperatures to Fahrenheit.

(e) Name various informed search methods used in AI. What do you understand by "Heuristics"? What is the role of "Heuristics" in informed search?

(f) Breifly write about the role played by each of the following concepts in Object-Oriented approach to knowledge representation:
* Class
* Message

(g) Enumerate at least six knowledge representation schemes.

(h) Evaluate the following LISP expressions:

  • (greaterp 18 151 76)
  • (reverse ((p q) r (s t)))
  • (+ (/ 9  5) 50)

(i) Write the following syntactic inference methods in symbolic form:

  • Abductive Inference
  • Modus Ponen in FOPL
  • Simplification

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Q 2. (a) Transform the following into disjunctive normal from:
~(X à Y) à Z

(b) Create a LISP database for the statement:
John is a teacher, is married to Nita and has two children David and Priya.

(c) Write a LISP program that reads the radius of a circle and finds out the circumference of the circle and prints a suitable message.

(d) Give the internal storage linked cons cell structure for the list
((x y) (z (u v)))

(e) Define the relation of 'grand uncle' (both maternal and paternal) where the relation of 'mother','father', 'brother', and 'sister' are defined already.

Q 3 (a) Express the following as an associative network structure with interconnected nodes and labelled areas:
Company XYZ is a software development company. Three departments within the company are: Sales, Administration and Programming. Neeraj is the manager of programming. Ramesh and Sue are programmers. Sue is married to raj. raj is an editor for Tata McGraw-Hills. They have three children and they live on London street. Sue wears glasses and is five feet four inches tall.

(b) Identify the following variables as nominal, ordinal, binary or interval:
i) university class
ii) intelligence
iii) quality of restaurant

(c) Describe briefly "The frame problem" in context of knowledge organization and management.

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Q 4. (a) Determine whether each of the following sentences is satisfiable, contradictory or valid.
(i) (P & Q) Ú ~(P & Q)
(ii) (P à Q) à ~P

(b) Convert the following into clausal form:
($x)("y) (("z) P(f(x), y, z) ($u) Q (x, u) & ($v) R(y, v)))

(c) Write a note on 'Inductive Inference'.

5. (a) Indicate whether or not consistent substitutions can be made which result in matches for the following pair of clauses:
P(a, x) v Q(b, y, f(y)) v R(x, y) and
P(x, a) v Q(f(y), y, b) v R(y, x)

(b) Enumerate some desirable characteristics for an effective memory organization.

(c) Translate the following statements into First Order Predicate calculus (FOPC)/ Propositional calculus:

  • Some highly qualified sceintists are unemployed in Russia but in America all qualified scientists are employed.
  • Only old people get sick
  • Mohan has exactly two friends.
  • Nothing beautiful is evil.

Q 6. (a) Describe "Means-ends analysis" as a problem solving technique in AI.

(b) How do you differentiate between an 'Informed Search' method and an 'Uninformed Search' method? Outline Best-First search as a method of solving problems.

(c) Compare Depth-first & Breadth-First as search methods.

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