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CS - 14 Intelligent Systems
Dec. 2002

Q 1. (a) Contruct a truth table for the logical expression:
(B à A) & (~B Ú ~A)

(b) Name at least six component areas of Artificial Intelligence.

(c) Evaluate the following LISP expressions:

  • (member 'x '(y (x) (z u)))
  • (setq s '(p q r))
  • (reverse '((a b) c (d h)))

(d) Write the following syntactic inference methods in symbolic form:
i) Abductive Inference
ii) Moduc Ponen in FOPL
iii) Simplification

(e) In context of OOPS, define
i) Class
ii) Polymorphism
iii) Object

(f) Express the following statement as a conceptual graph:
Mohan takes soup with a spoon.

(g) Describe briefly the Best-First search algorithm.

(h) Explain the Frame problem with a suitable example.

(i) Enumerate important characteristics that a computer memory organization system should possess.

(j) Identify the following variables as nominal, ordinal, binary or interval:
i) temperature
ii) sex
iii) wavelength
iv) intelligence
v) population
vi) quality of food

Q 2. (a) Transform the following into disjunctive normal Wrom: XISH P à (~(Q à R)

(b) Give the internal storage linked cons cell structure for the list
((e f) ((g h) k) d)

(c) Write a LISP program that reads four numbers and arranges into ascending order.

(d) Define the relation of 'Nephew' where the relations of 'mother', 'father', 'brother', 'male', and 'sister' are already defined.

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Q 3 (a) Convert the following into prenix normal form:
("x)($y) ($z P(x, f(y), g(z)) (($u) R (y, u) & ($v) S(y, x, v))

(b) Translate the following statements in FOPL:
i) All employees earning more than Rs. 60,000 per year, pay income tax.
ii) No employee of a university earns more than the vice-chancellor.
iii) European vegetarian do not take milk, but Indian vegetarians do.

Q 4. (a) Repressnt the following as an associative network:
IGNOU is an open university established by an act of parliament. It has nine schools of studies and twelve divisions to support the academic activities at the headquarters. It has 44 regional centres spread over the whole country. Each school and division is headed by a director and each regional centre headed by a regional director.

(b) Transform the following conceptual graph into equivalent FOPL statement:
(Past) [CAMEL : sonu] (AGENT) [DRINK] (OBJECT) [WATER] (ATTRIBUTE) [100 LITERS]

(c) Briefly explain the main difference between scripts and frame structures.

5. (a) Using the search tree given below, list the elements of the queue just before the next node is expanded. Use best-first serach where the numbers correspond to estimated cost-to-goal for each corresponding node.

(b) Discuss briefly some of the potential problems when using hill climbing search.

Q 6. (a) State what variable binding, if any, will make the following lists match.

  • (a b c (d a) f) and (?x b c (d ?y) ?z)
  • (*x a b (c d) *x) and ((e f) a b *y e f)
  • (?x *y a b c (d e)) and (a (j k (f)) a b c *z)

(b) Write an efficient algorithm for matching substrings.

(c) Describe briefly the indexed organization of knowledge.

 

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