## CS - 14 Intelligent Systems June 2002

Q 1. (a) Define and describe the difference between 'knowledge', belief, 'hypothesis', and data.

(b) Evaluate the following LISP expressions:

• (lessp 45 40 76)
• (* (+ 9 5) (* (/ 10 3) 5))
• (defun factorial (n)
(cond (((zerop n) 1)
(t (* n (factorial (n 1))))))

(c) For each of the following statements, tell whether it is true or false:

• Frames and scripts are two knowledge representation mechanisms.
• The work of logicians such as Church, Godel, Post and Turning did not play any role in the development of AI later on.
• The field of linguistics shares an interest in the theory of grammars and languages with AI.

(d) Write a LISP program to convert number of miles into number of kilometers (you may assume 5 miles = 8 kilometers)

(e) Construct a truth-table for the following logical expression:
~(C à D) Ú (C Ù D)

(f) What do you mean by 'Heuristic'? Describe the role of 'Heuristic' in solving problems.

(g) What is resolution principle? What is the resolution of (~P Ú Q) and (~Q Ú R).

(h) Give conceptual dependency structure for the following:

(i) Write the Best-First Search' algorithm.

Q 2. (a) Transform the following into disjunctive normal from:
~(X à Y) à Z

(b) Give the internal storage linked cons cell structure for the list
((x y) (z (u v)))

(c) Create a LISP database for the statement:
Mohan is a teacher, is married to Reeta and has two children Rahul and Priya.

(d) Define the relation of 'grand uncle' (both maternal and paternal) where the relation of 'mother','father', 'brother', and 'sister' are defined already.

(e) Write a LISP program that reads the radius of a circle and finds out the circumference of the circle and prints a suitable message.

Q 3 (a) Transform the following FOPL into equivalent conceptual graph.
i) " x NORMAL (x) & GROWN (x) à WALK (x)
ii) (" x) (HASWINGS (x) & LAYSEGGES (x) à ISBIRD (x)

(b) Explain briefly about the important characteristics that a computer memory organization system should possess.

(c) Identify the following variables as nominal, ordinal, binary or interval:
i) temperature
ii) wavelength
iii) population

Q 4. (a) Convert the following into clausal form:
(\$x)(\$y) (\$z P(f(x), y, z) ® ("u) Q (x, u) & (\$v) R(y, v)))

(b)What do you understand by a non deductive inference method? Describe briefly the following non deductive inference methods.
i) Abductive Inference
ii) Inductive Inference
iii) Analogical Inference

5. (a) Develop an E-MOP for a general episode to fill up a car with gasoline using the elements Actor, Participant, Objects, Actions, and Goals.

(b) Express the following sentence as conceptual dependency structure:
Sam gave Marry a box of candy.

Q 6. (a) Discuss 'Travelling salesman' as a search problem.

(b) Describe 'Depth_First Iterative Deepening' search method.

(c) Discuss the Breadth-First as a problem solving method.

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